UNIX commands can often be grouped together to make even more powerful commands with capabilities known as I/O redirection ( for getting input from a file input and **> for outputing to a file ) and piping using ** ** to feed the output of one command as input to the next. Please investigate manuals in the lab for more examples than the few offered here.


These are ten commands that you really need to know in order to get started with UNIX. They are probably similar to commands you already know for another operating system.**

Command Example Description
1.    ls ls ls -alF Lists files in current directoryList in long format
2.    cd cd tempdir cd .. cd ~dhyatt/web-docs Change directory to tempdir Move back one directory Move into dhyatt’s web-docs directory
3.    mkdir mkdir graphics Make a directory called graphics
4.    rmdir rmdir emptydir Remove directory (must be empty)
5.    cp cp file1 web-docs cp file1 file1.bak Copy file into directoryMake backup of file1
6.    rm rm file1.bak rm *.tmp Remove or delete fileRemove all file
7.    mv mv old.html new.html Move or rename files
8.    more more index.html Look at file, one page at a time
9.    lpr lpr index.html Send file to printer
10.  man man ls Online manual (help) about command


Once you have mastered the basic UNIX commands, these will be quite valuable in managing your own account.

Command Example Description  
1.    grep grep “bad word” * Find which files contain a certain word  
2.    chmod chmod 644 *.html chmod 755 file.exe Change file permissions read onlyChange file permissions to executable  
3.    passwd passwd Change passwd  
4.    ps ps aux ps aux   ** **   grep dhyatt List all running processes by #IDList process #ID’s running by dhyatt
5.    kill kill -9 8453 Kill process with ID #8453  
6.    gcc (g++) gcc file.c -o file g++ fil2.cpp -o fil2 Compile a program written in CCompile a program written in C++  
7.    gzip gzip bigfile gunzip bigfile.gz Compress file Uncompress file  
8.    mail        (pine) mail me@tjhsst.edu file1 pine Send file1 by email to someone Read mail using pine  
9.    telnet         ssh telnet vortex.tjhsst.edu ssh -l dhyatt jazz.tjhsst.edu Open a connection to vortexOpen a secure connection to jazz as user dhyatt  
10.  ftp ncftp ftp station1.tjhsst.edu ncftp metalab.unc.edu Upload or Download files to station1 Connect to archives at UNC  

### Ten FUN UNIX Commands

These are ten commands that you might find interesting or amusing. They are actually quite helpful at times, and should not be considered idle entertainment.

Command Example Description  
1.    who who Lists who is logged on your machine  
2.    finger finger Lists who is on computers in the lab  
3.    ytalk ytalk dhyatt@threat Talk online with dhyatt who is on threat  
4.    history history Lists commands you’ve done recently  
5.    fortune fortune Print random humerous message  
6.    date date Print out current date  
7.    cal cal 9 2000 Print calendar for September 2000  
8.    xeyes xeyes & Keep track of cursor (in “background”)  
9.    xcalc xcalc & Calculator (“background” process)  
10.  mpage mpage -8 file1   ** **  lpr Print 8 pages on a single sheet and send to printer (the font will be small!)

### Ten HELPFUL UNIX Commands

These ten commands are very helpful, especially with graphics and word processing type applications.

Command Example Description
1.    netscape netscape & Run Netscape browser
2.    xv xv & Run graphics file converter
3.    xfig / xpaint xfig & (xpaint &) Run drawing program
4.    gimp gimp & Run photoshop type program
5.    ispell ispell file1 Spell check file1
6.    latex latex file.tex Run LaTeX, a scientific document tool
7.    xemacs / pico xemacs (or pico) Different editors
8.    soffice soffice & Run StarOffice, a full word processor
9.    m-tools (mdir, mcopy,         mdel, mformat, etc. ) mdir a:mcopy file1   a: DOS commands from UNIX (dir A:)Copy file1 to A:
10.  gnuplot gnuplot Plot data graphically

Ten USEFUL UNIX Commands:

These ten commands are useful for monitoring system access, or simplifying your own environment.

Command Example Description  
1.    df df See how much free disk space  
2.    du du -b subdir Estimate disk usage of directory in Bytes  
3.    alias alias lls=”ls -alF” Create new command “lls” for long format of ls  
4.    xhost xhost + threat.tjhsst.eduxhost - Permit window to display from x-window program from threatAllow no x-window access from other systems  
5.    fold fold -s file1   ** **   lpr Fold or break long lines at 60 characters and send to printer
6.    tar tar -cf subdir.tar subdirtar -xvf subdir.tar Create an archive called subdir.tar of a directoryExtract files from an archive file  
7.    ghostview (gv) gv filename.ps View a Postscript file  
8.    ping    (traceroute) ping threat.tjhsst.edu traceroute www.yahoo.com See if machine is alivePrint data path to a machine  
9.    top top Print system usage and top resource hogs  
10.  logout (exit) logout or exit How to quit a UNIX shell.  

Source :  http://www.tjhsst.edu/~dhyatt/superap/unixcmd.html